After a return to power and expansion, Hungary slowly grew
until 1396 when they were overrun by the Ottoman Turks, but
by 1456 they had defeated the Turks and established a large and well trained army.
However all this fighting left the local Magyar people neglected and soon both the
nobles and the peasants were fighting the king as the pendulum swung the other direction
in 1541 when the Turks returned and took the then Austrian-controlled
Budapest (at the time two separate cities: Buda and Pest).
Until 1686, Hungary was divided by Turkish,
Hungarian, and Austrian control, at which point the
Polish armies defeated the Turks, but the Magyars didn't gain independence
since the Hapsburgs came in and took over the land previously controlled by the
Turks. The relationship was inconsistent over time as independence movements came
and went as the Hapsburg power declined and eventually created the dual monarchy
of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in 1867.
During much of early Austrian rule (prior to the dual monarchy)
the countries experiences wars, in particular the counter-reformation, the Thirty
Years War, and further battles with the Turks. The 1700s
were much the same as Austria got involved in wars with the Russians,
Swedes, Prussians, and French among
The 1800s began with further wars with the French as Napoleon
swept across Europe. In his wake he left various revolutionary
ideas behind, including rule by the people and greater power by the people to determine
their own destiny. This led to Hungarian revolts and in 1867 Austria
united with Hungary in a dual monarchy to overpower these
thoughts and movements. This union created a government in which the two countries
operated fairly independently of each other, only sharing a few governmental branches.