The Kamukaru Dynasty (ruled until 1333) brought back significant architectural movements
and advances. This began with the rebuilding of Todai Temple (rebuilt in the 1100s)
and added numerous foreign techniques, most commonly from China, which the Japanese
adopted in some forms and altered in others.
Under the Azuchi Dynasty (1568-1600) and the early years of the Tokugawa Dynasty
(1600-1868) the movement away from temples continued as castles and palaces gained
greater importance. These military structures were built in order to protect the
royal family and other wealthy individuals from the warring people; the first major
stone castles in Japan was built in the 1530s, but they peaked in the early 1600s
and most of the castles in Japan today are from Tokugawa rulers.
The Tokugawas also built numerous other structures, beginning with the Mausoleum
of Tokugawa Ieyasu (1630s) in Nikko and the Katsura Imperial Villa (1620-1624) in
Kyoto, a city which flourished under these rulers as their capital city for much
of their rule.
After the Tokugawa Dynasty, the Meiji Dynasty (1868-1912) made numerous changes
as they adopted European architecture in materials, techniques,
and to a lesser degree designs. This led to numerous massive buildings being constructed
in a short time as bricks became common. The buildings from this time tend to have
British and German undertones as architects from these countries arrived and their
students continued their traditions. Among the most interesting of these buildings,
are the Tokyo Stadium (1914), Bank of Japan (1890-1896) in Tokyo, and the Kabuki
Theater (1924) in Tokyo, all of which have aspects of both western and