Due to Spanish colonization and the timing of their colonization,
much of Mexico's architecture from the 1600s and 1700s
is authentically Baroque (which arrived in the early 1600s). Among Mexico's
finest Baroque architecture, the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral (1573-1813)
and the Sagrario Metropolitano (1749-1768) in Mexico City are perhaps the
best examples as these building also inspired later constructions; buildings that
were built primarily in the cities of Puebla, Guanajuato, Morelia and of course
Mexico city itself.
Mexico City, as the capital of New Spain, received the greatest amount of new architecture
under Spanish rule. The city is riddled with thousands of
historical monuments, many of which are from this early colonial period and are
in the Baroque style, or in a sub-style falling under the larger Baroque definition,
like the Churrigueresque Style. However, it is probably the city of Puebla that
the style is the most unique as tiles became commonplace and local materials give
the buildings a different look from most of Mexico's
San Cristobal Cathedral
In about 1780-1800 the Spanish Baroque style ended in
Mexico as the Neo-Classical style quickly took over. The School of Mines
(1797-1813) in Mexico City and the church, El Carmen (1803-1807) in Celaya
are among the most distinct. Like the Baroque style before it, the Neo-Classical
style dominated the country through the 1800s.
Although the Neo-Classical style dominated the 1800s, the country was often in political
rife and few buildings were constructed during this century. As the century came
to a close there were multiple small movements that arose, most commonly in trying
to imitate great European cities like Paris. This didn't
introduce a new style so much as it introduced random buildings in various styles
by numerous European architects. During this time the National Theater of Mexico
(1904) and the Postal Palace (1902) were built among others.
In the 1930s the styles from Europe began to decline as domestic
(primarily ancient Mayan and Aztec) influences took over, as did influences from
other American countries. This happened to coincide with the modern movement as
new materials and techniques were introduced, including concrete and glass. Among
the local inspirations, most were built as monuments to past leaders of the country.
The modern style made the greatest impact on the country's larger cities, including
the capital as skyscraper and other modern and post-modern buildings are common
place in Mexico City and other large cities.