The Spanish also encouraged the local people to build in stone
or brick for this housing. This new material and slight alteration in style is best
seen in Vigan, Ilocos Sur or in Taal, Batangas. Despite this relationship, the Spanish
defended themselves with the construction of massive forts and castles. This is
best displayed with Manila's Fort Santiago (1571, but expanded, re-built, and
restore numerous times over history).
In the 1800s, just as in Europe, a number of revival architectural
styles were developed, including the Neo-Gothic and the Neo-Byzantine styles. The
Neo-Gothic style is best seen in San Sebastian in Manila, while the Neo-Byzantine's
highlight is Manila Cathedral (1878-1879).
In 1898 the United States defeated
Spain in the Spanish-American War and they gained control over the
Philippines. They continued the trend of "neo" building with
Neo-Classical architecture, most heavily pronounced in Manila, but again most of
these buildings were destroyed during World War II.
In the 1900s numerous styles, including the "neo" styles were being built,
primarily in Manila. Included in this group was the Luneta Hotel (1918; renovated
in 2007) in Manila, which is in the French Renaissance style.
Art Deco was also popular in the 1920s and 1930s, but little remains outside the
Far Eastern University campus in Manila.